Dec 12

Threading in C# Part -6

Threading in C# Part -6

Threading in C# Part -6

This is in the continuation of previous five Posts:
Threading in C# Part -1
Threading in C# Part -2
Threading in C# Part -3
Threading in C# Part -4
Threading in C# Part -5

Synchronization

So far, we have described how to start a task on a thread, configure a thread, and pass data in both directions. We have also described how local variables are private to a thread and how references can be shared among threads, allowing them to communicate via common fields.

The next step is synchronization: coordinating the actions of threads for a predictable outcome. Synchronization is particularly important when threads access the same data; it’s surprisingly easy to run aground in this area.

Synchronization constructs can be divided into four categories:

Simple blocking methods

These wait for another thread to finish or for a period of time to elapse. Sleep, Join, and Task.Wait are simple blocking methods.

Locking constructs

These limit the number of threads that can perform some activity or execute a section of code at a time. Exclusive locking constructs are most common — these allow just one thread in at a time, and allow competing threads to access common data without interfering with each other. The standard exclusive locking constructs are lock (Monitor.Enter/Monitor.Exit), Mutex, and SpinLock. The nonexclusive locking constructs are Semaphore, SemaphoreSlim, and the reader/writer locks.

Signaling constructs

These allow a thread to pause until receiving a notification from another, avoiding the need for inefficient polling. There are two commonly used signaling devices: event wait handles and Monitor’s Wait/Pulse methods. Framework 4.0 introduces the CountdownEvent and Barrier classes.

Nonblocking synchronization constructs

These protect access to a common field by calling upon processor primitives. The CLR and C# provide the following nonblocking constructs: Thread.MemoryBarrier, Thread.VolatileRead, Thread.VolatileWrite, the volatile keyword, and the Interlocked class.
Blocking is essential to all but the last category

Blocking

A thread is deemed blocked when its execution is paused for some reason, such as when Sleeping or waiting for another to end via Join or EndInvoke. A blocked thread immediately yields its processor time slice, and from then on consumes no processor time until its blocking condition is satisfied. You can test for a thread being blocked via its ThreadState property:

When a thread blocks or unblocks, the operating system performs a context switch. This incurs an overhead of a few microseconds.

Unblocking happens in one of four ways (the computer’s power button doesn’t count!):

  • by the blocking condition being satisfied
  • by the operation timing out (if a timeout is specified)
  • by being interrupted via Thread.Interrupt
  • by being aborted via Thread.Abort

A thread is not deemed blocked if its execution is paused via the (deprecated) Suspend method.

Blocking Versus Spinning

Sometimes a thread must pause until a certain condition is met. Signaling and locking constructs achieve this efficiently by blocking until a condition is satisfied. However, there is a simpler alternative: a thread can await a condition by spinning in a polling loop. For example:

while (!proceed);
or:

while (DateTime.Now < nextStartTime);

In general, this is very wasteful on processor time: as far as the CLR and operating system are concerned, the thread is performing an important calculation, and so gets allocated resources accordingly!

Sometimes a hybrid between blocking and spinning is used:

while (!proceed) Thread.Sleep (10);
Although inelegant, this is (in general) far more efficient than outright spinning. Problems can arise, though, due to concurrency issues on the proceed flag. Proper use of locking and signaling avoids this.

ThreadState

You can query a thread’s execution status via its ThreadState property. This returns a flags enum of type ThreadState, which combines three “layers” of data in a bitwise fashion. Most values, however, are redundant, unused, or deprecated. The following diagram shows one “layer”:
ThreadState

The following code strips a ThreadState to one of the four most useful values: Unstarted, Running, WaitSleepJoin, and Stopped:

The ThreadState property is useful for diagnostic purposes, but unsuitable for synchronization, because a thread’s state may change in between testing ThreadState and acting on that information.

Locking

Exclusive locking is used to ensure that only one thread can enter particular sections of code at a time. The two main exclusive locking constructs are lock and Mutex. Of the two, the lock construct is faster and more convenient. Mutex, though, has a niche in that its lock can span applications in different processes on the computer.

In DotNetFramework 4.0, there is also the SpinLock struct for high-concurrency scenarios.

Let’s start with the following class:

This class is not thread-safe: if Go was called by two threads simultaneously, it would be possible to get a division-by-zero error, because _val2 could be set to zero in one thread right as the other thread was in between executing the if statement and Console.WriteLine.

Here’s how lock can fix the problem:

Only one thread can lock the synchronizing object (in this case, _locker) at a time, and any contending threads are blocked until the lock is released. If more than one thread contends the lock, they are queued on a “ready queue” and granted the lock on a first-come, first-served basis (a caveat is that nuances in the behavior of Windows and the CLR mean that the fairness of the queue can sometimes be violated). Exclusive locks are sometimes said to enforce serialized access to whatever’s protected by the lock, because one thread’s access cannot overlap with that of another. In this case, we’re protecting the logic inside the Go method, as well as the fields _val1 and _val2.

A thread blocked while awaiting a contended lock has a ThreadState of WaitSleepJoin. In Interrupt and Abort, we describe how a blocked thread can be forcibly released via another thread. This is a fairly heavy-duty technique that might be used in ending a thread.

A Comparison of Locking Constructs
ConstructPurposeCross-process?Overhead*
lock (Monitor.Enter /Monitor.Exit)Ensures just one thread can access a resource, or section of code at a time20ns
MutexYes1000ns
SemaphoreSlim  (introduced in Framework 4.0)Ensures not more than a specified number of concurrent threads can access a resource, or section of code200ns
SemaphoreYes1000ns
ReaderWriterLockSlim (introduced in Framework 3.5)Allows multiple readers to coexist with a single writer40ns
ReaderWriterLock  (effectively deprecated)100ns
*Time taken to lock and unlock the construct once on the same thread (assuming no blocking), as measured on an Intel Core i7 860.

Monitor.Enter and Monitor.Exit

C#’s lock statement is in fact a syntactic shortcut for a call to the methods Monitor.Enter and Monitor.Exit, with a try/finally block. Here’s (a simplified version of) what’s actually happening within the Go method of the preceding example:

Calling Monitor.Exit without first calling Monitor.Enter on the same object throws an exception.

The lockTaken overloads

The code that we just demonstrated is exactly what the C# 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 compilers produce in translating a lock statement.

There’s a subtle vulnerability in this code, however. Consider the (unlikely) event of an exception being thrown within the implementation of Monitor.Enter, or between the call to Monitor.Enter and the try block (due, perhaps, to Abort being called on that thread — or an OutOfMemoryException being thrown). In such a scenario, the lock may or may not be taken. If the lock is taken, it won’t be released — because we’ll never enter the try/finally block. This will result in a leaked lock.

To avoid this danger, CLR 4.0’s designers added the following overload to Monitor.Enter:

lockTaken is false after this method if (and only if) the Enter method throws an exception and the lock was not taken.

Here’s the correct pattern of use (which is exactly how C# 4.0 translates a lock statement):

Permanent link to this article: http://zappmania.in/2013/12/12/threading-c-part-6.htm

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