Q8. What is a project baselines ?
Ans. Project baselines define a logical closure of any deliverable or cycle.Example you have completed the requirement phase with sign off from the client on the requirement document.So you put a baseline and say that further any changes to this document is a change request. Creating Versions of source code is one type of baseline.
Q9. What is effort variance?
Ans. Effort Variance = (Actual effort – Estimated Effort) / Estimated Effort.
Q10. How a project management plan document organized ?
Ans. PMP document forms the bible of a project.It has normally these sections :-
- Project summary
- Project organization hierarchy
- WBS / Activity list to be performed with schedule.
- Work product identification (In short who will do what)
- Project schedule( GANNT chart or PERT chart).
- Estimated Cost and completion.
- Project requirements.
- Risk identification.
- Configuration management section.
- Quality section.
- Action Item status.
Q11. How do you estimate a project?
Ans. There many techniques available for estimating a project:-
- Function points
- Use Case points
- WBS etc
Q12. What is Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR)?
Ans. The basic purpose of CAR is to analyze all defects, problems and good practices/positive
triggers in projects, perform a root cause analysis of the same, identify respective corrective
and preventive actions and track these to closure. The advantage of CAR is that root
causes are scientifically identified and their corrective and preventive actions are carried
out. CAR needs to be performed at project initiation, all phase and project ends and on a
monthly basis. Fishbone diagram is one of the ways you can do CAR.
Q13. What is Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)?
Ans. Decision Analysis and Resolution is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that identifies alternatives against established criteria.
Example in a project you are said to use third party tools so you will not depend on only one tool but evaluate three to four more tools so that in case of problems you have alternatives. This is called as DAR.
Q14. What is a fish bone diagram(Ishikawa diagram)?
Ans. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, invented the fishbone diagram. Therefore, can be also referred as
Fishbone diagram is a analysis diagram which provides a systematic way of looking at effects and the causes that create or contribute to those effects.Because of the function of the fishbone diagram, it may be referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram. The design of the diagram looks much like the skeleton of a fish. Therefore, it is often referred to as the fishbone diagram.
Fishbone diagram helps in categorizing potential causes of problems or issues in an orderly way and in identifying root causes.
Below is a sample fish bone diagram which shows why a project dead line was not met.The middle arrow is the main problem “Deadline not met”.Then we start analyzing other problems which has led to this problem.Example There is client problem — as he is always changing the requirement this is caused because the company did not sign the SRS and this happened as proper project management procedures where not at place.So to solve this problem we either appoint a project manager or give training on project management to senior team members.
Q15. How do you handle change request?
Ans. Normally change request are handled by preparing a Impact analysis document and then doing re-estimation. Example you have a ongoing project , which has a customer table. Now customer wants that customer to also have addresses assigned to it. So you normally raise a change request and then do a impact analysis of the same. Depending on the impact you estimate and let know the client about the financial aspect of the project.
Once client sign off or the upper management agrees to the change request you move ahead with implementation.
Q16. What is difference between SITP and UTP in testing?
Ans. UTP (Unit Test Plan) are done at smallest unit level or in stand alone mode. Example you
have Customer and invoicing module. So you will do test on Customer and Invoice module independently. But later when we want test both customer and invoice in one set we integrate them and test it. So that’s is SITP (System Integration Test Plan)
UTP can be done using NUNIT. Unit testing is done normally by developers and System testing is done normally by testing department in integration mode.